1. Discuss with your counselor the influence that EIGHT of the following people or events had on the history of medicine:

    a. Hippocrates

    b. William Harvey

    c. Antoine van Leeuwenhoek

    d. Edward Jenner

    e. Florence Nightingale

    f. Louis Pasteur

    g. Gregor Mendel

    h. Joseph Lister

    i. Robert Koch

    j. Daniel Hale Williams

    k. Wilhelm Conrad Roentgen

    l. Marie and Pierre Curie

    m. Walter Reed

    n. Karl Landsteiner

    o. Alexander Fleming

    p. Charles Richard Drew

    q. Helen Taussig

    r. James Watson and Francis Crick

    s. Jonas Salk

  2. Explain the Hippocratic Oath to your counselor, and compare to the original version to a more modern one. Discuss to whom those subscribing to the original version of the oath owe the greatest allegiance.
  3. Discuss the health-care provider-patient relationship with your counselor, and the importance of such a relationship in the delivery of quality care to the patient. Describe the role of confidentiality in this relationship.
  4. Do the following:a. Describe the roles the following people play in the delivery of health care in your state. (Note: Not all may exist in your state.)

    1. Allopathic physician

    2. Chiropractor

    3. Emergency medical technician

    4. Licensed practical/vocational nurse

    5. Medical assistant

    6. Medical laboratory technologist

    7. Nurse-midwife

    8. Nurse practitioner

    9. Occupational therapist

    10. Optometrist

    11. Osteopathic physician

    12. Pharmacist

    13. Physical therapist

    14. Physician’s assistant

    15. Podiatrist

    16. Psychologist

    17. Radiologic technologist

    18. Registered nurse

    19. Respiratory therapist

    b. Describe the educational and licensing requirements for five of those in 4a --other than 4a(1)- - practicing health care in your state.

  5. a. Tell what is meant by the term "primary care" with regard to a medical specialty. Briefly describe the types of work done by physicians in the following "core" specialties:

    1. Internal medicine*

    2. Family practice*

    3. Obstetrics/gynecology*

    4. Pediatrics*

    5. Psychiatry

    6. Surgery

    b. Describe the additional educational requirements for these specialties.

  6. a. Briefly describe the types of work performed by physicians in FIVE of the following specialties or subspecialties:

    1. Allergy/immunology

    2. Anesthesiology

    3. Cardiology

    4. Colon and rectal surgery

    5. Dermatology

    6. Emergency Medicine

    7. Endocrinology

    8. Gastroenterology

    9. Geriatric medicine

    10. Hematology/oncology

    11. Infectious disease

    12. Nephrology

    13. Neuro surgery

    14. Neurology

    15. Nuclear medicine

    16. Ophthalmology

    17. Orthopedic surgery

    18. Otolaryngology/head and neck surgery

    19. Pathology

    20. Physical medicine and rehabilitation

    21. Plastic, reconstructive, and maxillofacial surgery.

    22. Preventive medicine

    23. Radiology

    24. Rheumatology

    25. Thoracic/cardiothoracic surgery

    26. Urology

    27. Vascular surgery

    b. Describe the additional educational requirements for the five specialties or subspecialties you chose in 6a.

  7. a. Visit a physician's office,** preferably one who delivers "primary care." (This may be that of your counselor.) Discuss the components of a medical history and physical examination (an official BSA health form may be used to guide this discussion), and become familiar with the instruments used.

    b. Describe the characteristics of a good diagnostic test to screen for disease (e.g. routine blood pressure measurement). Explain briefly why diagnostic tests are not perfect.

    c. Show how to take a blood pressure reading and a pulse reading.

  8. Do the following:

    a. Discuss the roles medical societies, the insurance industry, and the government play in influencing the practice of medicine in the United States.

    b. Briefly tell how your state monitors the quality of health care within its borders, and how it provides care to those who do not have health insurance.

  9. Compare and discuss with your counselor the health care delivery systems in the United States, Sweden, and China.
  10. 1 Serve as a volunteer at a health-related event or facility in your community (e.g. blood drive, "health fair", blood pressure screening, etc.) approved by your counselor.

"Primary care" specialties

** If this cannot be arranged, demonstrate to your counselor that you understand the components of a medical history and physical, and discuss the instruments involved.