Castling is a move that involves your king and either of your original rooks.Read More
Names and Moves of Each Piece
Each player starts the game with the equal amount of pieces; 8 Pawns, 2 Knights, 2 Bishops, 2 Rooks, 1 Queen, and 1 King.
How the pieces move:
Each of the 6 different kinds of pieces moves differently. Pieces cannot move through other pieces (though the knight can jump over other pieces), and can never move onto a square with one of their own pieces. However, they can be moved to take the place of an opponent's piece which is then captured. Pieces are generally moved into positions where they can capture other pieces (by landing on their square and then replacing them), defend their own pieces in case of capture, or control important squares in the game.
The king is the most important piece, but is one of the weakest. The king can only move one square in any direction - up, down, to the sides, and diagonally.
The king may never move himself into check (where he could be captured).
The queen is the most powerful piece. She can move in any one straight direction - forward, backward, sideways, or diagonally - as far as possible as long as she does not move through any of her own pieces. And, like with all pieces, if the queen captures an opponent's piece her move is over.
The rook may move as far as it wants, but only forward, backward, and to the sides.
The bishop may move as far as it wants, but only diagonally. Each bishop starts on one color (light or dark) and must always stay on that color.
Knights move in a very different way from the other pieces – going two squares in one direction, and then one more move at a 90 degree angle, just like the shape of an “L”. Knights are also the only pieces that can move over other pieces.
Pawns are unusual because they move and capture in different ways: they move forward, but capture diagonally. Pawns can only move forward one square at a time, except for their very first move where they can move forward two squares. Pawns can only capture one square diagonally in front of them. They can never move or capture backwards. If there is another piece directly in front of a pawn he cannot move past or capture that piece.
Castling is a special type of chess move. When castling, you simultaneously move your king, and one of your rooks. The king moves two squares towards a rook, and that rook moves to the square at the other side of the king.
a maneuver in chess which is performed after a player moves a pawn two squares forward from its starting position, and an opposing pawn captures it as if it had only moved one square. En passant may only be played immediately after a two-square square pawn advance, or the right to capture "in passing" is lost
- The king moves one square in any direction. The king has also a special move which is called castling and involves also moving a rook.
- The rook can move any number of squares along any rank or file, but may not leap over other pieces. Along with the king, the rook is involved during the king's castling move.
- The bishop can move any number of squares diagonally, but may not leap over other pieces.
- The queen combines the power of the rook and bishop and can move any number of squares along rank, file, or diagonal, but it may not leap over other pieces.
- The knight moves to any of the closest squares that are not on the same rank, file, or diagonal, thus the move forms an "L"-shape: two squares vertically and one square horizontally, or two squares horizontally and one square vertically. The knight is the only piece that can leap over other pieces.
- The pawn may move forward to the unoccupied square immediately in front of it on the same file; or on its first move it may advance two squares along the same file provided both squares are unoccupied; or it may move to a square occupied by an opponent's piece which is diagonally in front of it on an adjacent file, capturing that piece. The pawn has two special moves: the en passant capture and pawn promotion.
- Demonstrate basic opening principles (such as development of pieces, control center, castle, don’t bring queen out too early, don’t move same piece twice).
- Visit a chess tournament and tell your den about it.
- Participate in a pack, school, or community chess tournament.
- Solve a pre-specified chess problem (e.g., “White to move and mate in three”) given to you by your adult partner.
- Play five games of chess.
- Play 10 chess games via computer or on the Internet.
- Read about a famous chess player. Tell your den or an adult family member about that player’s life.
- Describe U.S. Chess Federation ratings for chess players.
- Learn to write chess notation and record a game with another Scout.
- Present a report about the history of chess to your den or family.
- Discuss with your merit badge counselor the history of the game of chess. Explain why it is considered a game of planning and strategy.
- Discuss with your merit badge counselor the following:
- The benefits of playing chess, including developing critical thinking skills, concentration skills, and decision-making skills, and how these skills can help you in other areas of your life
- Sportsmanship and chess etiquette
- Demonstrate to your counselor that you know each of the following. Then, using Scouting's Teaching EDGE, teach the following to a Scout who does not know how to play chess:
- The name of each chess piece
- How to set up a chessboard
- How each chess piece moves, including castling and en passant captures
- Do the following:
- Demonstrate scorekeeping using the algebraic system of chess notation.
- Discuss the differences between the opening, the middle game, and the endgame.
- Explain four opening principles.
- Explain the four rules for castling.
- On a chessboard, demonstrate a "scholar's mate" and a "fool's mate."
- Demonstrate on a chessboard four ways a chess game can end in a draw.
- Do the following:
- Explain four of the following elements of chess strategy: exploiting weaknesses, force, king safety, pawn structure, space, tempo, time.
- Explain any five of these chess tactics: clearance sacrifice, decoy, discovered attack, double attack, fork, interposing, overloading, overprotecting, pin, remove the defender, skewer, zwischenzug.
- Set up a chessboard with the white king on e1, the white rooks on a1 and h1, and the black king on e5. With White to move first, demonstrate how to force checkmate on the black king.
- Set up and solve five direct-mate problems provided by your merit badge counselor.
- Do ONE of the following:
- Play at least three games of chess with other Scouts and/or your merit badge counselor. Replay the games from your score sheets and discuss with your counselor how you might have played each game differently.
- Play in a scholastic (youth) chess tournament and use your score sheets from that tournament to replay your games with your merit badge counselor. Discuss with your counselor how you might have played each game differently.
- Organize and run a chess tournament with at least four players, plus you. Have each competitor play at least two games.
- Do EACH of the following:
- Describe three examples of safety equipment used in a chemistry laboratory and the reason each one is used.
- Describe what a material safety data sheet (MSDS) is and tell why it is used.
- Obtain an MSDS for both a paint and an insecticide. Compare and discuss the toxicity, disposal, and safe-handling sections for these two common household products.
- Discuss the safe storage of chemicals. How does the safe storage of chemicals apply to your home, your school, your community, and the environment?
- Do EACH of the following:
- Predict what would happen if you placed an iron nail in a copper sulfate solution. Then, put an iron nail in a copper sulfate solution. Describe your observations and make a conclusion based on your observations. Compare your prediction and original conclusion with what actually happened. Write the formula for the reaction that you described.
- Describe how you would separate sand from water, table salt from water, oil from water, and gasoline from motor oil. Name the practical processes that require these kinds of separations.
- Describe the difference between a chemical reaction and a physical change.
- Construct a Cartesian diver. Describe its function in terms of how gases in general behave under different pressures and different temperatures. Describe how the behavior of gases affects a backpacker at high altitudes and a scuba diver underwater.
- Do EACH of the following:
- Cut a round onion into small chunks. Separate the onion chunks into three equal portions. Leave the first portion raw. Cook the second portion of onion chunks until the pieces are translucent. Cook the third portion until the onions are caramelized, or brown in color. Taste each type of onion. Describe the taste of raw onion versus partially cooked onion versus caramelized onion. Explain what happens to molecules in the onion during the cooking process.
- Describe the chemical similarities and differences between toothpaste and an abrasive household cleanser. Explain how the end use or purpose of a product affects its chemical formulation.
- In a clear container, mix a half-cup of water with a tablespoon of oil. Explain why the oil and water do not mix. Find a substance that will help the two combine, and add it to the mixture. Describe what happened, and explain how that substance worked to combine the oil and water.
- List the four classical divisions of chemistry. Briefly describe each one, and tell how it applies to your everyday life.
- Do EACH of the following:
- Name two government agencies that are responsible for tracking the use of chemicals for commercial or industrial use. Pick one agency and briefly describe its responsibilities to the public and the environment.
- Define pollution. Explain the chemical effects of ozone, global warming, and acid rain. Pick a current environmental problem as an example. Briefly describe what people are doing to resolve this hazard and to increase understanding of the problem.
- Using reasons from chemistry, describe the effect on the environment of ONE of the following:
- The production of aluminum cans or plastic milk cartons
- Sulfur from burning coal
- Used motor oil
- Briefly describe the purpose of phosphates in fertilizer and in laundry detergent. Explain how the use of phosphates in fertilizers affects the environment. Also, explain why phosphates have been removed from laundry detergents.
- Do ONE of the following activities:
- Visit a laboratory and talk to a practicing chemist. Ask what the chemist does and what training and education are needed to work as a chemist.
- Using resources found at the library and in periodicals, books, and the Internet (with your parent's permission), learn about two different kinds of work done by chemists, chemical engineers, chemical technicians, or industrial chemists. For each of the four jobs, find out the education and training requirements.
- Visit an industrial plant that makes chemical products or uses chemical processes and describe the processes used. What, if any, pollutants are produced and how are they handled?
- Visit a county farm agency or similar governmental agency and learn how chemistry is used to meet the needs of agriculture in your county.